Lie Detector Test Cardiff - Polygraph Test Cardiff
The history of polygraph tests and lie detector tests in Cardiff.
It may come as a surprise to some that deception is a universal quality of this world. It is not new, it is not isolated, and there is no reason to conclude that there is more or less of it than there has been in the past that said if you need a lie detector test in Cardiff well your in the right place. Deception is neither an aberration nor a departure from the laws of nature. Rather, it is intricately woven into the fabric of life on earth. It surrounds us, is part of us, and has been here before there was an "us' One powerful reason for deception's ubiquity is that it can have immense survival value to living things: it can improve the chances of avoiding predators, of winning a mate, in securing a meal, and of confounding a competitor. It appears throughout the spectrum of biology. Insects do it all the time, and well. So do fish and birds. If you need a Lie Detector Test in Cardiff call us on 08000029153 now.
Deceptive strategies are found among crustaceans, lizards, mammals, snakes, inver- tebrates, many plants, and even bacteria. One might be tempted to conclude that where there is life, there is deception. Humans deceive perhaps more often, more nuanced, and for more reasons than any other species. It seems to be part of a collective psychology, or perhaps it is sim- ply more available to that species with the biggest relative brain size. Nonetheless. deception is very much a part of us, so much so that the English language offers no fewer than 20 synonyms for it. And while lying among humans can be socially ac- cepted occasionally, expected at times, and even demanded in others, there are condi- tons where it is destructive to the legitimate interests of individuals and society. Remember If you need a Lie Detector Test in Cardiff call us on 07399884635.
Here lies the critical importance of lie detection, as a defense against those who would use deception to do harm. From the historical perspective, the use of a polygraph for lie detection is quite new; however, the quest for a method for verifying statements is very old. Virtually every culture across history with a system of writing has given comment to it, offering various and sundry methods to ferret out the deceiver. Given the many obvious advantages it might afford the person who knows when others are lying, it is not unreasonable to suspect that human interest in lie detection emerged right along with the human capacity for telling lies, which most certainly predates writ- ten history.
ANCIENT TRADITIONS OF A LIE DETECTOR TEST IN CARDIFF
Frequently in early societies, it was believed that goodness could be differentiated from evil simply because goodness was stronger, or that divine intervention would protect the truth speaker (Larson, 1932). Tests were devised based on the assumption that a magical force would come into play to identify or rescue the truth speaker. For example, one such test was an ordeal involving bread and cheese (Trovillo, 1939) The practice, called "Corsnaed," was used by Roman Catholic priests during the Inquisition to detect the guilt of a member of the priesthood. First, bread and cheese were placed on the altar. The priests would then offer prayers to Gabriel, asking him to make it impossible for a suspected priest to swallow the bread and cheese if he were guilty of the offense in question. After the prayers were completed, they would require the suspected priest to eat the bread and cheese in their presence. If the priest could not swallow these items, it was a sign of guilt. However, reports of a priest un- able to do so are diflicult to find. In India a similar notion of divine intervention in the ordeal prevailed. A'li Ibra'hi'm Kha'n (1806)' describes nine ways in which the ordeal may be con- ducted. They include the balance, fire, water, poison, Cófha (or water in which an idol has been washed), rice, boiling oil, red-hot iron, and images. They are briefly described here: The balance: The accused fasts the entire day and is then bathed in sacred water. After worshipping the deities, the accused is placed on a balance and weighed. There is more prayer, and the accusation is written on a piece of paper and bound to the head of the accused. Six minutes later he is reweighed. If he weighs more, he is pronounced guilty. If he lost weight, he is judged innocent. If his weight is unchanged, he is weighed again. It is expected that his weight will change in this third weighing. Finally, if the balance device on which he is weighed was to break, this is a sign of guilt. The fire: A hole "nine hands long, two hands broad, and one hand deep is made in the ground, and filled with a fire of pippal wood." The accused is compelled to walk barefoot across the flames. If he is unhurt, he is innocent: if burned he is guilty. The water: The accused is placed in water up to his navel. Hindu instructions take care to say of the water that "no ravenous animal be in it." A Bráhman enters the water holding a staff. A soldier shoots three arrows into the air, and another man is sent to pick up the arrow that has traveled the farthest. A second man near the waler Is also sent to this arrow. At that moment the accused must submerge under the water holding to the Bráhman's foot or staff, and remain under the water until the two men return with the arrow. Failure to remair completely under water until the arrow is retrieved is an evidence of guilt.
The poison: Here there are two versions. One involves a mixture of barley-corn, butter, and poison eaten from the hand of the Bráhman. A lack of effect of the poison signifies innocence, but illness indicates guilt. In the second, the accused must reach his hand into a deep pot which contains a poisonous snake in addition to a ring, seal, or coin. He must take out the object without getting bitten by the snake. If he is successful, he is deemed innocent. A snake bite indicates guilt. The C6fha: The accused drinks three draughts of water in which images of deities have been washed. Illness within 2 weeks is a sign of guilt. The rice: This ordeal is used when there are several suspects in a theft. Dry rice is brought forth. Sometimes it is weighed with a sacred stone, other times special incantations are read. The suspects are then made to chew a portion of the dry rice, and then place it on leaves of the pippal or the bark of certain trees. Rice that has remained dry, or has blood in it, is an indication that it came from the guilty person.
The hot oil: Oil is heated, and the accused places his hand into it. Burns on the hands show guilt, whereas the lack of burns is expected from the innocent. The red-hot iron: Metal, in the form of an iron ball or the head of a lance, is heated red hot and placed on the hands of the accused. As with the ordeal of the hot oil, burns indicate guilt, and a lack of burns signifies innocence. The images: The image of one of the deities (Dharma) is made of silver and another image is made of clay or iron of a second deity (dharma). The images are placed in a large jar, and the accused is compelled to place his hand in the jar and draw out one of them. If he draws the silver image, he is considered innocent, but he is guilty if he draws out the other image. In an alternate form, images of the deities are rendered on two pieces of cloth, one white and one black. Both pieces of cloth are "rolled up in cow-dung, and thrown into a jar, without having ever been shown to the accused" Again, the accused draws one of the pieces of cloth from the jar, with white representing Dharma and innocence
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In the first modern scholarly book on deception detection, Larson (1932) ex- amined the history of this field. He listed the major approaches as trial by combat, ordeal, torture, benefit of clergy, sanctuary, and compurgation (i.e., multiple sworn endorsements of innocence).
introduced in many countries, including the hiring of surrogates to do the fighting. Special consideration was given in some countries for women, children, and the handicapped who were to contest against able-bodied men. In those cases, instead of the weaker contestant hiring a surrogate, the rules of the combat were adjusted to offset the inequality in physical strength. Lea's (1892) extensive coverage of the subject reveals a very wide range of trials by combat across cultures.
Ordeals: This category of truth test abounds with examples, with the most frequent among them involving water and heat/fire (Lea, 1892; Matthews, 1791). Water has been used for guilt detection through processes such as immersion of the suspect (e.g., witch hunts in the United States in the seventeenth century), sanctification of icons that the suspect must touch, adding of objects or impurities to water that the suspect must drink, or suspects plunging an arm into water to retrieve an unseen object that would signify their innocence or guilt. The ordeals by heat/fire could include walking across hot coals, placing hot metal against the tongue, carrying a hot metal objects, or placing the suspect's arm in boiling oil or water. Typically, the suspect who survived these ordeals uninjured was judged innocent.
Torture: This method of guilt detection is found in virtually all cultures and throughout most of history. It has been used to force confessions to crimes and to antireligious beliefs. Torturers have shown a peculiarly innovative streak and have been successful in extracting admissions to whatever matter they wished. However pervasive torture has proven over the centuries, the earliest as well as the most recent writers of this approach have observed that it is highly flawed in that it develops confessions from both the innocent and the guilty. Moreover, the growth of the concept of human rights, especially in the second half of the twentieth century, has moved many nations away from torture and toward more discriminative methods of truth verification, including forensic science and the polygraph.